Michael E. Salla, M.A., Ph.D.
This is an extract from the first chapter of Galactic Diplomacy: Getting to Yes with ET (2013) where I examine the key principles of ‘galactic diplomacy’ at the unofficial level, as a form of ‘track two’ or citizen diplomacy aimed at establishing contact and communications with different extraterrestrial civilizations. I will analyze the nature of diplomatic representation on Earth that might be recognized by various extraterrestrial races. Particular focus will be on the representative status of different global constituencies such as politically organized humanity, cetaceans, alleged subterranean civilizations, and the role of Earth or ‘Gaia’ as a self-regulating organism with vital interests. Each of these constituencies have their own vital interests that must be included in negotiations that directly impact upon them.
'Track two’ or 'citizen diplomacy' offers the opportunity for private individuals or ‘citizen organizations’ to open communication channels and develop agreements between nations experiencing diplomatic impasses and/or violent conflict. Citizen diplomacy has been shown to be an effective process in helping establish diplomatic relations and developing suitable confliction resolution strategies for difficult global conflicts. Extending the practice of citizen diplomacy from the global arena involving international actors, into the exopolitical arena involving different extraterrestrial civilizations is both possible and necessary. This is due to the long history of secrecy, hidden rivalries and low intensity conflicts that exist between extraterrestrial races and government agencies.
Given government secrecy over the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations; the diverse motivations, agendas and conflicts involving extraterrestrial races and various government agencies; there is an urgent need for citizen diplomacy with extraterrestrial civilizations or what might be also called ‘track two galactic diplomacy’. There is a need for private citizens to establish communications with extraterrestrial civilizations; play roles in mediating between different extraterrestrial groups and global humanity; establishing track two diplomatic relations with extraterrestrials; and assist official diplomatic relations between government agencies and extraterrestrials or what might be described as ‘track one galactic diplomacy’.
Most importantly, using the conceptual mode of principled negotiation described … in Ury’s and Fisher’s book, Getting to Yes, we can develop a model for “Getting to Yes with ET.” When those communicating with extraterrestrials recognize the vital interests of all parties directly affected by negotiations, then we have “principled negotiations.”…
Traditional forms of diplomacy involve appointed officials of different national political systems officially representing their nations to promote their respective “national interests” in the face of competition from, and conflict with, other nations. We witness examples of this with ambassadors and diplomats stationed at national embassies around the world to promote their national policies. Diplomacy can be defined as: “a technique of state action, [which] is essentially a process whereby communications from one government go directly to the decision-making apparatus of another.”  Individuals appointed to diplomatic positions are typically accountable to the executive and/or legislative branches of government of their nations. In the United States, ambassadors are nominated by the President and appointed by the U.S. Senate.
These appointed as ambassadors, or ‘diplomats’ in general, are consequently authorized to participate in meetings aimed at producing agreements that impact on the territories and citizens of their nations. This ‘official’ form of diplomacy has existed for thousands of years and examples are found in the monarchs of early kingdoms who appointed representatives to meet with foreign powers; and establish treaties with other kingdoms to promote peace, trade and/or protection of each other’s citizens. In the recent era, diplomacy has increasingly been defined in terms of diplomats representing the national interests of their states which transcend moral principles or global imperatives.
According to Henry Kissinger who wrote the influential book, Diplomacy, international diplomacy is based upon the judicious advancement of a state’s national interest above all other considerations including moral principles or global interests. The concept of ‘national interest’ evolved from the statecraft of Cardinal Richelieu of 17th century France who was the first ‘modern’ leader to contend that universal morality was trumped by the pragmatic concerns of the nation state. Richelieu was Prime Minister of France from 1624-1642. He diplomatically and militarily allied Catholic France with Protestant German Princes and the Ottoman Turks against the Catholic Hapsburg Empire on the basis of France’s raison d’etat (reason of state or ‘national interest’). This was something that appeared to be shocking and immoral in the Christian world, but nevertheless became the official policy of France. Since the thirty years War 1618-1648, the concept of national interest has subsequently become the basis of diplomatic interactions and the chief concern of diplomats representing their nation in the global community. Morality and ethical concerns, in the centuries since Cardinal Richelieu first introduced the concept of raison d’etat, have increasingly played second fiddle to a state’s national interest when these came into conflict.
As far as the idea of vital interests of all parties in a negotiation is concerned, we can see how national interest has historically evolved to trump the vital interests of “weaker parties” when it comes to negotiations. Put simply, diplomatic discussions that emphasize the national interests of states, the vital interests of some (typically weaker) parties impacted by the discussions are secondary.
In this book, I discuss some of the persuasive evidence of clandestine official meetings between national governments and extraterrestrial races since at least the 1950s…. These meetings led the Eisenhower administration to establish agreements with extraterrestrial civilizations based on the national interest of the U.S. There was an absence of any moral imperative to inform the general public due to the profound nature of this initial contact between extraterrestrial civilizations and a major Earth government. This policy was merely a continuation of the now well established doctrine that national interest would trump morality whenever they came into conflict. The result has been that the vital interests of US and other national citizens have been violated, at least at an individual level.
The secret agreements between extraterrestrial civilizations and the U.S. government have led to the building of joint facilities, technology exchanges and permission for limited abductions. The meetings and consequent agreements established between extraterrestrial races and the U.S. government have been kept secret. The information of these meetings and agreements continue to remain highly classified, and off limits to the most senior of elected political officials. This even includes Presidents such as Clinton and Carter who were denied access to documents detailing the extraterrestrial presence. More surprising is that even senior military officers are often kept out of the loop as exemplified in the case of Vice Admiral Thomas Wilson who in 1997 served as the intelligence chief for the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Wilson was denied access to classified projects involving UFO technologies that he learned about through non-official sources.
The diplomatic meetings that have occurred so far have been between different extraterrestrial civilizations and representatives from the U.S. governments. These diplomatic meetings have thus followed the traditional form of diplomatic relations where appointed officials represent the national interests of their countries in meetings with foreign powers. This indicates that diplomatic relations with extraterrestrial civilizations have proceeded despite the secrecy surrounding the existence of extraterrestrial races, and the secret contact established with the U.S. and other major world governments.
It may be assumed that the U.S. and other world governments are by default the representatives of Earth in terms of its citizens and territory in establishing diplomatic relations with extraterrestrials, but this is not something that can be taken for granted. It’s very important to closely examine the question of who represents Earth in diplomatic relations with extraterrestrial civilizations. After all, we private citizens have been kept out of the loop on the reality of extraterrestrial life, does that mean we have no relevance when it comes to representing the interests of our planet with off-world visitors?
As far as ‘galactic diplomacy’ is concerned, the Earth may be defined, in a narrow way, as the population and territory of the third planet orbiting the sun, or Sol if we wish to identify ourselves within the Milky Way Galaxy. Thus defined, the different nation states representing the regional territories and populations on Earth collectively represent the Earth. This narrow reading of who represents the Earth, as far as galactic diplomacy is concerned, would lead to three models of diplomatic representations for the Earth.
The first would be that multilateral institutions such as the United Nations would have the necessary legitimacy and authority to represent planet Earth in diplomatic relations with extraterrestrial civilizations. Presumably, the United Nations (UN) would represent the global interests of all states rather than the national interests of any one particular state. It’s worth pointing out that the United Nations directly represents the interests of its member states; and, at best, only indirectly represents the interests of the world population
The second model of diplomatic representation would be that dominant global powers such as the U.S. Russia and China would represent the Earth in diplomatic meetings with extraterrestrial civilizations. The dominant powers would presumably prioritize their national interests rather than the global interests of all the nations of Earth. This appears to have been the case thus far due to the minor role played by the United Nations in dealing with the extraterrestrial presence. For example, the UN General Assembly passed a decision in December 1978 (Decision 33/426) to establish “an agency or a department of the United Nations for undertaking, coordinating and disseminating the results of research into unidentified flying objects and related phenomena." The requested agency/department was never created and the decision was not acted upon. This vividly demonstrates the lack of support the United Nations has had from major powers in seriously playing a role in the UFO/extraterrestrial phenomenon.
The third representational model is a hybrid where major global powers establish diplomatic relations with extraterrestrials, cooperate among themselves, and have these relations legitimized in multilateral institutions such as the United Nations. This would enable major powers to find consensus about how to promote their respective national interests in harmony with one another, and to legitimize these through the United Nations as ‘global interests’. Consequently, a narrow interpretation of who represents the Earth leads to the answer, major world governments and the multilateral institutions which they comprise and dominate.
There is however a broader definition of who represents the Earth which goes beyond the notion of geographical territory and population controlled by a national government. A definition that also goes beyond the concept of ‘national interest’, which has become the primary focus of diplomats advancing the welfare of their nations. This broader definition involves Earth having different constituencies that may have diplomatic standing among extraterrestrial civilizations. The vital interests of these constituencies go far beyond the concept of national interest relating to modern nations and international diplomacy.
The first constituency is what has already been examined in terms of surface humanity that is politically organized into nation states with elected political representatives, appointed officials and/or hereditary monarchical systems. This is a constituency that undoubtedly has representational status for extraterrestrial civilizations as evidenced by the agreements which have already been reached between ‘shadow government’ representatives and some extraterrestrial groups as will be discussed in the next two chapters. However, such ‘representative status’ is not exclusive which leads to the examination of other constituencies that extraterrestrials, to varying degrees, might recognize as legitimate. After all, some extraterrestrial visitors might recognize that world politics, as presently set-up, doesn’t really represent the vital interests of humanity generally, let alone the rest of sentient life on the planet.
The second constituency is the various sentient species that exhibit a high degree of intelligence that also inhabit the Earth’s surface territories and oceans. In addition to humans as an intelligent sentient species, we can include cetaceans such as dolphins and whales that have exhibited a high degree of intelligence and communicative skills. In analyzing Dolphin communications and intelligence, Dr Michael Hyson claims that:
the Cetacea (dolphins and whales) are self-aware, fully conscious, sentient, and have their own complex language. Because they have larger brains, more available cortex, and more processing power available (because of their lives in water) the Cetacea, including the dolphins, are more intelligent than we are. 
Other cetacean researchers such as Dr John Lilly, Timothy Wyllie and Joan Ocean have found that dolphin/whale communications are based both on their highly complex sonar abilities and on the use of telepathic communication. Consequently, the intelligence and communicative abilities of cetaceans, and other intelligent animals such as elephants that also have large brains, is something that some extraterrestrial visitors might recognize. This would give cetaceans, elephants and possibly other intelligent sentient species on Earth’s surface and oceans, diplomatic standing among extraterrestrial civilizations despite the former’s lack of technologically developed societies. Put simply, they each have their own vital interests that need to be considered in any negotiations that directly impact upon them.
The Hollow Earth & Agartha by Dr Joshua David
The Hollow Earth & Agartha by Dr Joshua David Stone
The Old Ones, an immensely intelligent and scientifically advanced race … have chosen to structure their own environment under the surface of the planet and manufacture all their necessities. The Old Ones are hominid, extremely long-lived, and pre-date Homo sapiens by more than a million years.
Furthermore, according to a range of whistleblower and contactee testimonies, there appears to be a group of Reptilians who are indigenous to Earth. Some researchers contend that most if not all UFO reports are actually sightings of the ships of these subterranean races rather than beings from other worlds. Each of these subterranean civilizations has their own vital interests that again need to be included in negotiations that directly impact upon them.
I now move to the fourth constituency which may initially come as a shock to many readers. It is based on the idea that the Earth itself can be regarded as a sentient being, or at least as a self-regulating entity, and therefore has vital interests that would be acknowledged by some extraterrestrial civilizations. The ‘Gaia hypothesis’ is based on the theory first promoted by a former NASA scientist, James Lovelock in a 1979 book, that the Earth is a sentient being which regulates the evolution of life. Lavelock writes:
I recognize that to view the Earth as if it were alive is just a convenient, but different, way of organizing the facts of the Earth. I am of course prejudiced in favor of Gaia and have filled my life for the past twenty-five years with the thought that Earth may be alive: not as the ancients saw her—a sentient Goddess with a purpose and foresight—but alive like a tree. A tree that quietly exists, never moving except to sway in the wind, yet endlessly conversing with the sunlight and the soil. Using sunlight and water and nutrient minerals to grow and change. But all done so imperceptibly, that to me the old oak tree on the green is the same as it was when I was a child.
While Lovelock doesn’t believe Gaia’s sentience is the same of the ancient Greek concept of a goddess with “purpose and foresight,” his reference to Gaia as a global tree would at minimum make it sentient enough for its vital interests or needs to be considered by some extraterrestrial visitors. The Gaia hypothesis that Earth is a sentient being that exhibits consciousness and life, at least insofar as it is self-regulating, is something that we can expect some extraterrestrials might recognize. We cannot overlook the Earth itself or ‘Gaia’, as an important constituency in diplomatic relations with extraterrestrial civilizations insofar as it is self-regulating, and therefore has vital interests.
Consequently, the question of who represents Earth in establishing diplomatic relations with extraterrestrial civilizations is far more complex given the existence of different constituencies each of which has its own vital interests. These constituencies presumably have some standing among the various courts, councils and alliances that make up the various extraterrestrial civilizations that I will later identify are visiting the Earth.
While it may be assumed that the question of who represents the human population of at least the Earth’s surface is easy to answer, it cannot be assumed that secretly appointed officials who comprise official delegations responsible for developing agreements with extraterrestrials have the necessary legitimacy to bind all of surface humanity in unannounced “treaties”. While appointed officials have de facto power to participate in meetings and agreements with extraterrestrial groups, I will show how these operate with great secrecy and remain unaccountable to the citizenry of different nations who remain oblivious to the existence of such meetings and agreements. Furthermore, elected political representatives are denied this information thereby raising the constitutional status of such meetings and treaties and the de jure authority of these.
The U.S. Constitution, for example, specifically states that all treaties to which the U.S. enters needs to be ratified by the U.S. Senate. Article II, section 2, states: “He [the President] shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur.” However, this constitutional provision has been bypassed by a series of executive orders and congressional actions that make it possible for agreements to be signed and implemented without the consent of two-thirds of the Senate nor with the knowledge of the general public. These extra-constitutional arrangements have dubious legal standing and while these may at most have standing for short periods such as national emergencies, it is extremely doubtful that their legal standing would be sufficient for a semi-permanent arrangement which has existed for almost 60 years. In short, the diplomatic representatives of major nations that meet and draw up agreements with extraterrestrial civilizations have dubious constitutional validity, at least in the U.S., and very likely also other democratic nations.
I identified earlier other constituencies that need to be included in the question of who represents Earth in diplomatic relations with extraterrestrial civilizations. These include cetaceans and other sentient life forms with large brains that inhabit the Earth’s oceans, surface or subterranean regions, and finally the Earth itself. All species that have sentience, intelligence and the ability to communicate by telepathic or other means with extraterrestrial civilizations would have some diplomatic standing. Included among these sentient life forms are the remnants of earlier human civilizations and non-human (e.g., Reptilian) life forms that have advanced technologies and communication abilities but are based in subterranean areas. It would be reasonable to assume that sentient life forms might already have diplomatic standing among extraterrestrial civilizations.
Finally, the next important constituency we need to consider as relevant for visiting extraterrestrials is the planet itself. I will spend some time discussing this Gaia hypothesis since this offers some important insights into developing a comprehensive model for addressing the question of who speaks for planet Earth.
As mentioned earlier, the Gaia hypothesis posits that Earth is a living consciousness that displays sentience insofar as it is self-regulating. Therefore the Earth itself might be considered a viable actor in diplomatic relations with extraterrestrial races. If the Gaia hypothesis is accurate, then an important consideration is whether Gaia has an ‘intelligence’ or vital interests with which individuals can choose to align themselves. Lovelock’s Gaia hypothesis was based on the recognition that Gaia displayed a sentience that was similar to that of a tree and displayed an organic intelligence that was dynamically connected to the ecosystem: “A tree that quietly exists, never moving except to sway in the wind, yet endlessly conversing with the sunlight and the soil.” While he did not believe Gaia displayed ‘purpose’ in the ordinary sense we would understand intelligent life, he believed it communicated with the complex ecosystem in a way that sustained life for all.
A vivid analogy of the Gaia hypothesis is the 2008 blockbuster film Avatar. The Na’vi, the indigenous peoples of the earth-like moon Pandora, have established a means of communicating with the ecology of their world, and even with its very soul or spirit. The human hero of the movie, is told that the spirit of Pandora is only interested in establishing planetary balance or harmony - planetary balance is Pandora’s vital interest. Yet he is able to communicate with her in a last desperate attempt to save the Na’vi. When the Na’vi are defeated by the human invaders in a final confrontation, Pandora itself, through its diverse animal species, awakens to defeat the humans and their technology. Pandora was thus saved by the interconnected nature of life on this fictional world, and the ability of its indigenous peoples to communicate with the Spirit of Pandora and protect its vital interests.
It would be fair to say that based on the Gaia hypothesis, the Earth has an intelligence and vital interests that can be recognized by sentient species sufficiently receptive to the subtle form of communication used by the Earth’s self-regulating mechanisms. On Earth, this is often demonstrated by indigenous peoples whose lives are filled by rituals and ceremonies establishing a connection with the land, and communicating with it to establish ecological balance. Just as a simple organism has a survival mechanism that influences its behavior, so too Earth exhibits communicative tendencies with indigenous peoples aimed at maintaining planetary balance. This suggests that the Earth, like any species, has at a minimum, a communicative component which makes it self-regulating, and demonstrates some degree of intelligence that promotes the evolution of sentient life in a way that maintains planetary balance or homeostasis as Lovelock describes it. The intelligence and vital interests of Earth is something that sentient species can choose to align themselves with, and is a process that humanity is only beginning to fathom.
If Gaia demonstrates intelligence and communicative abilities, one may ask, who best represents her vital interests? Is it some mysterious energetic force in the center of the planet; the giant Redwood trees of the U.S. Pacific coast; the cetaceans that circumnavigate the world’s oceans; the tribal elders who maintain traditional relationships with the Earth’s surface, individuals and groups that do energetic work with the planet; that portion of humanity which has divided itself in terms of states and territories or even alleged advanced sentient species that inhabit the Earth’s subterranean realms? It can be posited that the vital interests of Earth are represented by those life forms, human or otherwise, that align themselves with the intelligence and communications of the biosphere.
It is this possible alignment with the intelligence and vital interests of the Earth that would confer legitimacy, in the eyes of some extraterrestrial visitors, to non-official representatives of our planet’s interests. Thus human or other sentient terrestrial species in alignment with the intelligence and vital interests of the Earth have diplomatic standing among extraterrestrial civilizations presumably willing to recognize the sentience of Earth, as a constituency in any negotiations affecting the whole planet.
Recognizing the Earth as a legitimate constituency in establishing diplomatic relations leads to the intriguing possibility that some portions of humanity may be more legitimate than others in representing Earth as an organic unit. Rather than diplomatic representation of Earth being something that pertains solely to different nations with their elected representatives and appointed officials, it may be that individuals or groups in alignment with the vital interests of Earth may have greater diplomatic standing for some extraterrestrial visitors. This is a revolutionary idea since it first appears odd that appointed officials of national governments would have less diplomatic standing than unappointed individuals and groups who claim alignment with the Earth’s vital interests. Nevertheless, the existence of Earth itself as an important constituency would be recognized by some extraterrestrial civilizations. This raises the possibility that some individuals/groups in alignment with the vital interests of the Earth may have diplomatic standing among extraterrestrials by virtue of this alignment.
In consequence, the question of who represents the Earth has two answers. The first is a narrow restrictive answer in terms of secretly appointed officials that represent different national governments or multilateral institutions such as the United Nations. The second is far more comprehensive and involves recognition of a range of sentient life forms. Politically organized humanity is but one among several important sentient life forms and constituencies, including the planet itself. It is very likely that while extraterrestrial civilizations recognize the validity of the first form of representation, they would also give validity to the second. This means that galactic diplomacy involving the Earth and its diverse populations, life forms and territories is far more open and eclectic than initially thought. This raises the possibility of non-official forms of diplomatic representation involving portions of surface humanity that speak on behalf of the vital interests of other sentient species or for the Earth itself.
As already mentioned, the Gaia Hypothesis makes possible the existence of Earth as a sentient self-regulating entity with its own communicative abilities and intelligence that directs the way life evolves on Earth. This raises an intriguing possibility. Individuals, groups and even communities that align themselves with this intelligence or vital interests of the biosphere, and who ultimately have allegiance to Earth rather than to any nation, may have the necessary authority to represent the planet. As a corollary, such individuals also have representative status for surface humanity, which is politically organized into sovereign nations. Humans living on Earth’s surface are both citizens of sovereign nations and citizens of the biosphere. This implies that both the representatives of nations and representative of the biosphere, can legitimately speak on behalf of the interests of surface humanity. In order to more easily refer to those individuals/groups/communities that align themselves with the vital interests of Earth and thus represent the biosphere, I will use the term ‘Earth citizens’.
‘Earth citizens’ differ from the rest of humanity which is politically organized into sovereign nations, where private citizens and public officials give ultimate allegiance to a nation state as “national citizens”. This suggests some tension is likely to arise as to who speaks with more authority concerning the future of Earth in diplomatic relations with extraterrestrial civilizations. Is it ‘Earth citizens’ in alignment with Earth’s vital interests, who also respect/consult with other sentient intelligent species on Earth? Alternatively, will the final authority be the diplomatic representatives of sovereign nations who give allegiance to their nations rather than the Earth’s vital interests?
The tension described above is likely to be compounded by the wide difference in resources and legitimacy between ‘Earth citizens’ and ‘politically organized humanity’ or ‘national citizens’. The former has great legitimacy due to its alignment with biosphere and respect/consultation with other sentient life forms on Earth; while the latter has all the resources of the modern state to support its appointed officials in diplomatic relations with extraterrestrials. Given the telepathic nature of extraterrestrial civilizations and their expected recognition of different constituencies representing the Earth, it is highly likely that there will be tension between ‘Earth citizens’ and ‘politically organized humanity’. The question that arises is “who speaks with more authority on behalf of Earth and of humanity in general?”
According to former U.S. Ambassador, John MacDonald, there are a number of different forms or ‘tracks’ of diplomacy. These are in addition to the official form which involves appointed officials who have the necessary authority to represent their nations in meetings and agreements with binding force for their governments and nations. In addition to official or ‘track one’ diplomacy, there is a ‘track two’ or ‘citizen diplomacy’ that involves private individuals, and ‘citizen organizations’. These citizen diplomats engage in various initiatives to promote diplomatic solutions to important global problems. The term ‘track two diplomacy’ was coined by a former U.S. diplomat, Joseph Montville in 1981 to describe early attempts by private citizens and groups to intervene in diplomatic issues and international problems. He describes track two diplomacy as: "unofficial, informal interaction between members of adversarial groups or nations with the goals of developing strategies, influencing public opinions and organizing human and material resources in ways that might help resolve the conflict." In its most simple terms, track two diplomacy involves concerned individuals and/or groups intervening in diplomatic impasses or international conflicts to promote solutions and dialogue between disputing parties.
The most common approach taken by intervening third parties is to identify the vital interests or needs of the conflicting parties. The goal is to get the parties to agree to some solution that recognizes and harmonizes each’s respective vital interests as far as possible. Fisher’s and Ury’s model of “principled negotiations” outlined in Getting to Yes, offers a very popular model for multitrack diplomacy.
Despite initial skepticism by the diplomatic community over the participation of private citizens and groups in international diplomacy, ‘track two’ or ‘citizen diplomacy’ has grown in significance over the last three decades, and is now recognized as a legitimate process that complements government agencies in dealing with contentious diplomatic issues and resolving global conflicts. In 2002, the U.S. Department of State organized a conference on integrating ‘track one’ and ‘track two’ diplomatic initiatives which was attended by private citizens, non-government organizations and members of the diplomatic community from the U.S. and elsewhere.
Individuals, groups and organizations practicing track two diplomacy have been successful in receiving government and private grants to engage in this unofficial form of diplomacy in order to complement international diplomacy and assist in resolving global conflicts. For example, I received two grants from the U.S. Institute of Peace, which was created and funded by the U.S. Congress, to conduct track two initiatives to resolve the East Timor conflict. I invited a group of East Timorese, and later prominent Indonesian citizens, to Washington D.C. to initiate dialogue that would produce an ongoing initiative to help promote a resolution of the East Timor conflict. In the subsequent meetings wide consultation occurred with members of the U.S. and Indonesian diplomatic community, and with the United Nations. These meetings resulted in important breakthroughs which resulted in power sharing documents that helped stimulate a diplomatic solution to the East Timor conflict.
A number of private organizations regularly raise significant funds from a range of government agencies and private organizations to perform track two initiatives along similar lines to what I did in the case of East Timor. The most prominent citizen groups involved in track two diplomacy include Search for Common Ground, The Institute for Multitrack Diplomacy, and the Institute of World Affairs.
The recognition and legitimacy given to individuals, or groups performing citizen diplomacy in international conflicts creates an important precedent when examining how diplomacy might be conducted with extraterrestrial civilizations. Individuals and groups may be expected to conduct citizen diplomacy initiatives where there is a perceived need to assist official diplomacy and/or the resolution of conflicts involving extraterrestrial civilizations. Consequently, ‘track two galactic diplomacy’ can be defined as the effort by private individuals and/or citizen groups to assist in improving diplomatic relations between extraterrestrial civilizations and national governments, and/or to assist in resolving conflicts between extraterrestrials and/or national governments. These efforts may range from individual contacts that promote dialogue and information sharing, to citizen groups working with extraterrestrials to promote government disclosure, and resolving conflict between government agencies and alien civilizations.
While any individual or group can be expected to participate in citizen diplomacy initiatives with extraterrestrial civilizations, those who are self-described ‘Earth citizens’, as opposed to national citizens, have special significance. This significance is due to the expected recognition given to them by extraterrestrial civilizations as representatives of Gaia and other sentient species on Earth. Consequently, individuals and groups practicing citizen diplomacy may enjoy greater legitimacy and authority among extraterrestrial civilizations. This is due to the alignment of ‘Earth citizens’ with the vital interests of planet, and with the aspirations of other sentient species. This alignment means that ‘Earth citizens’ have ultimate allegiance to the biosphere and its sentient species. Earth citizens’ may thus enjoy greater status than the appointed officials representing sovereign nations, when it comes to negotiating with extraterrestrial civilizations.
Track two galactic diplomacy by ‘Earth citizens’ who are de facto Ambassadors for the Earth is an important development due to the secrecy surrounding historic meetings and agreements between some extraterrestrial civilizations and secretly appointed officials of different nations. Such citizen diplomacy initiatives can result in meetings and agreements that have legitimacy among a range of extraterrestrial civilizations, and therefore significantly impact on global affairs. A key question is how national security agencies would react to agreements or communications established by ‘Earth citizens’ through track two diplomacy with extraterrestrial civilizations.
A key aspect in the secrecy over visiting extraterrestrial civilizations has been the degree to which key national security agencies in the U.S. and elsewhere, have controlled information and monopolized resources devoted to extraterrestrial affairs. This control by key national security agencies suggests that the initial response by such agencies to ‘track two galactic diplomacy’ initiatives by Earth citizens would be regarded either with extreme suspicion or outright opposition. To a degree, the anticipated response by shadow government controllers of extraterrestrial information would parallel the initial response by foreign policy professionals and diplomatic community to the emergence of citizen diplomacy in international affairs in the early 1980’s. As noted earlier, this shifted from outright skepticism and dismissal, to eventual recognition and cooperation. The response to ‘citizen diplomacy’ by shadow controllers of extraterrestrial affairs is likely to follow a similar pattern.
The official reaction to citizen diplomacy with extraterrestrials is likely to be influenced by four challenges:
1. The extent of private communications and interactions with extraterrestrials by ‘Earth citizens’.
2. The willingness of the shadow government to use its coercive resources to suppress ‘citizen diplomacy initiatives.
3. The degree to which extraterrestrial civilizations might manipulate unsuspecting humans to destabilize national security agencies for ‘unfriendly’ extraterrestrial agendas.
4. The implications of agreements reached through ‘citizen diplomacy with extraterrestrials. I will now examine each of these challenges and how they impact on citizen diplomacy with extraterrestrials before finishing with some concluding remarks.
Along with Adamski – whose case along with others I will describe in detail later - some of these initial contactees included Howard Menger, Orfeo Angelucci, Paul Villa and George Van Tassel. These communications and interactions with extraterrestrials varied considerably depending on the contactee. Essentially all revealed that extraterrestrials were deliberately contacting private individuals to disseminate information about the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations, and the benevolent intentions of extraterrestrials making contact.
Over the years, the list of ‘contactees’ has grown considerably and the more well known in the recent era include Sixto Paz Wells, Billy Meier, Carlos Diaz, Alex Collier, Enrique Castillo, Luis Fernando Mostajo and Phillip Krapf. These ‘contactees’ have consequently given public lectures, written books, formed support groups, and communicated with key elites. The purpose was to convey information given by extraterrestrials and convincing a skeptical public of the friendly nature of these extraterrestrials. Without necessarily knowing it, these contactees were actually engaging in ‘track two galactic diplomacy’ insofar as they represented that portion of humanity described as ‘Earth citizens’ who were willing to disseminate the truth about visiting extraterrestrial life and the implications for global humanity.
National security agencies have ‘publicly’ treated contactees with skepticism and ridicule. In reality, the agencies paid close attention to contactees in order to simultaneously extract whatever information could be gained from the contactees. At the same time, the agencies would limit the extent to which the contactees’ information would enter into the public arena. For example, Enrique Castillo was invited to Washington D.C., from his native Colombia and he was subjected to a series of tests and interviews in a secret location by officials who did not identify themselves. After his meeting, he was paid a sum of money, and not officially contacted again. No news of these meetings and their conclusions were released to the general public.
Another example, reveals a more sinister aspect of the way governments interact with contactees and deal with the information they are disseminating. Alex Collier claims to have been contacted by extraterrestrials from the constellation of Andromeda. He was sharing information about his contacts through a popular website and public lectures before being visited by a team of Intelligence officials who intimidated him into silence. Apparently Collier was releasing sensitive information despite the official government position that since the closure of Project Blue Book, no government agency is actively investigating the UFO/extraterrestrial phenomenon. I will discuss more of this officially sanctioned interference and repression in chapter six.
Control of the mass media has been the chief vehicle by which the shadow government could limit the influence of the contactees as well as the UFO phenomenon more generally. The prospect that many more private citizens might experience contact with extraterrestrials and subsequently conduct ‘track two galactic diplomacy’ would be of extreme concern to government agencies. Yet it appears that growth of citizen diplomacy in global politics could not be prevented and was eventually welcomed by the diplomatic community. So too the growth in ‘citizen diplomacy with extraterrestrials’ or ‘track two galactic diplomacy’ cannot be prevented and eventually will be regarded as a complement rather than a threat by those conducting ‘official’ or ‘track one’ galactic diplomacy.
National Security agencies have an abundance of coercive resources that can be used to maintain secrecy over the extraterrestrial presence. The following passage from the Special Operations Manual, a document detailing recovery procedures for extraterrestrial craft leaked to UFO researchers, describes the official secrecy policy adopted in April 1954:
Any encounter with entities known to be of extraterrestrial origin is to be considered to be a matter of national security and therefore classified TOP SECRET. Under no circumstances is the general public or the public press to learn of the existence of these entities. The official government policy is that such creatures do not exist, and that no agency of the federal government is now engaged in any study of extraterrestrials or their artifacts. Any deviation from this stated policy is absolutely forbidden.
Whistleblowers such as Master Sergeant Dan Morris outlined how key national security agencies such as the NSA would coerce individuals to maintain silence, and how these coercive mechanisms extended even up to the use of deadly force to maintain secrecy:
The National Security Agency-the killers work in that. They’re the guys that, when it becomes necessary for a problem to be removed… if you watch James Bond, they’re the double-O agents, if you get my meaning. Secretary of Defense Forestall was the first real powerful, known person that was eliminated because he was going to release the information – and nobody has ever paid for that crime.
With a well known history of using even deadly force to maintain secrecy over the extraterrestrial presence, it might be questioned whether such coercive methods would be used against individuals and/or organizations conducting citizen diplomacy with ETs.
The key factor here is whether national security agencies would approve the use of coercive force in the present internet era where so much information is now freely available on the internet. It appears that soft censorship techniques such as eliminating public records, limiting major media exposure, hacking websites, etc., are the preferred methods of limiting information on extraterrestrials as opposed to the use of deadly force which appeared to be more widely used in the past. Nevertheless, the prospect that extraterrestrials would regard track two galactic diplomacy as providing a mandate for their activities would be of extreme concern to national security agencies. This could lead to the use of coercive measures to prevent citizen diplomacy with extraterrestrials from occurring as far as possible.
The likelihood that public disclosure of extraterrestrial presence will eventually occur, suggests that national security agencies are less and less disposed to the use of the most extreme forms of coercion. This is due to the likelihood that there will soon be some form of accounting for past actions and policy decisions. Public disclosure of the extraterrestrial presence would lead to a thorough review of past secret government and corporate actions in maintaining secrecy, and some accountability for government officials or corporate employees who enforce present policies.
The possibility that some extraterrestrials may manipulate individuals and groups engaging in citizen diplomacy is very real. The history of the extraterrestrial presence is one where a variety of agendas and activities have been conducted in order to control humanity. There is quite likely going to be continued efforts of manipulation by some extraterrestrial groups who view humanity as a resource to be controlled and exploited. The prospect that unsuspecting private individuals/groups might be used by ‘unfriendly’ extraterrestrial groups to undermine key national security agencies performing necessary roles in monitoring extraterrestrial races is very real. This suggests that a high degree of discernment and education about different extraterrestrial civilizations is necessary for those individuals who find themselves on the forefront of citizen diplomacy.
A case which illustrates such a possibility is that concerning former Los Angeles Time editor, Phillip Krapf, and the extraterrestrial race he describes as the Verdants. Krapf was ‘involuntarily’ taken into a Verdant ship where he saw a large number of civilians being subjected to a number of medical procedures. Together with the nature of Krapf’s ‘abduction’ this casts doubt on the Verdants apparent ‘benevolence’. When combined with the Verdants plan to establish a capital city in the American Southwest to be called ‘Genesis’ whereby their selected representatives would direct global events, the possibility that Krapf and others taken into the Verdants’ ship were being manipulated to bring about an extraterrestrial controlled world government looms as a strong possibility. Krapf himself acknowledged the possibility that he “was duped by unscrupulous ETs.” He insightfully described how this may have occurred with his supposed contact experiences:
Is it possible that memories that we are so sure of, that are so real, that actually help to define who we are, could be counterfeit? Can they be invented or even implanted by an outside source, by aliens with sinister motives or nefarious humans – government agents or otherwise – with secret technologies that are unknown to the general population?
A combination of training, public education and networking by contactees and others conducting citizen diplomacy would go a long way to preventing any manipulation by unfriendly extraterrestrial groups. This is the best safeguard to ensure the integrity of citizen diplomacy with extraterrestrials since the agendas and programs of national security agencies would not initially be viewed with much sympathy by contactees.
Contactees and others participating in citizen diplomacy are largely familiar with the long secrecy and suppression of information concerning extraterrestrials. Such individuals give very little legitimacy to the actions and concerns of national security agencies despite widespread public respect for such agencies. In particular, coercive actions by national security agencies against those active in citizen diplomacy would be strenuously opposed by those practicing or supporting this form of diplomacy. The result would succeed only in undermining the integrity of this form of diplomacy, rather than preventing it all together. Since track two galactic diplomacy is an inevitable development in human-extraterrestrial interaction, a premium needs to be placed on maintaining a high level of integrity for this form of citizen based diplomacy. This will prevent undue manipulation by ‘unfriendly’ extraterrestrial races, some of whom will be discussed in chapter three.
It is very likely that some citizen diplomacy initiatives will produce agreements with, or extend permission to, extraterrestrial groups to perform certain activities. This is especially likely to be the case where ‘Earth citizens’ participate and thereby carry special representative status far beyond their population numbers. Extraterrestrials may find special advantages in working with Earth citizens who might be willing to agree to initiatives or projects that positively impact on the planet. For example, in October 2003, a message allegedly from a group of extraterrestrials began circulating the internet accurately describing the exopolitical situation on Earth. They requested that ‘individuals without distinction’ decide whether they wanted the extraterrestrials to simply “show up”. The “Change the World” referendum generated great interest and an internet petition granting permission to the extraterrestrials to show up had over 12,500 signatures by April 2013.
The consequences of private citizens or citizen organizations reaching agreements with extraterrestrial races or giving permission to specific extraterrestrial activities would certainly be of great concern to national security agencies. It might be expected that those individuals and/or groups initiating such agreements or granting permission would be closely monitored and even subjected to harassment by national security agencies if this threatened to have wide impact. For example, in the United States, U.S. citizens participating in communications with extraterrestrials that result in agreements of some kind, may be prosecuted under the Logan Act.
The Logan Act was first passed by the U.S. Congress in 1799, and last amended in 1994. It pertains to private citizens engaging in any unofficial diplomacy with states with whom the US is in dispute. The Logan Act states:
Any citizen of the United States, wherever he may be, who, without authority of the United States, directly or indirectly commences or carries on any correspondence or intercourse with any foreign government or any officer or agent thereof, with intent to influence the measures or conduct of any foreign government or of any officer or agent thereof, in relation to any disputes or controversies with the United States, or to defeat the measures of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. This section shall not abridge the right of a citizen to apply himself, or his agent, to any foreign government, or the agents thereof, for redress of any injury which he may have sustained from such government or any of its agents or subjects.
To date, no U.S. citizen has been successfully prosecuted under the Logan Act for conducting citizen diplomacy. There is however the risk that private U.S. citizens that participate in meetings with extraterrestrial visitors may be prosecuted under the Logan Act.
It can be expected that the implications of agreements reached between extraterrestrial groups and ‘Earth citizens’ are likely to have consequences far beyond the physical numbers of such individuals and/or citizen organizations. This creates special tension since such individuals and/or citizen organizations hold no official positions and therefore have no representative status according to national security agencies, for participating in any agreements or approving extraterrestrial activities. The representative status presumably given by extraterrestrials to by self-declared Earth citizens individuals and/or citizen organizations by virtue of their being spokespersons for Gaia and other sentient Earth species, make ‘Earth citizens’ an important factor to be reckoned with, in the diplomatic dialogue over the role played by extraterrestrials on Earth and the future of humanity.
Conclusion: ‘Earth Citizens’ and ‘Track Two Galactic Diplomacy’
The term ‘Earth citizen’ describes a portion of humanity that gives allegiance to a wider set of constituencies on Earth rather than a national government which is more narrowly focused on its ‘national interests’. An Earth citizen feels a calling to respond to what they perceive to be the best interests of Gaia as a planet, and the various sentient species that inhabit the Earth’s territories, oceans and subterranean realms. As more and more humans develop such allegiances beyond purely national political loyalties and interests, and align themselves with what might be described as the vital interests of the Earth and other sentient species, Earth citizens become spokespersons for the biosphere. It can be expected that such spokespersons for the Earth would be regarded by extraterrestrials and other sentient Earth species as de facto ‘Ambassadors of Gaia’ and thereby carry influence far beyond their physical numbers.
Earth citizens are subsequently more likely to experience contact with extraterrestrial civilizations. Extraterrestrials view such individuals as having special significance due to their alignment with the Earth’s vital interests and desire to satisfy the aspirations of other sentient species. Contact with Earth citizens gives greater legitimacy to the various activities of extraterrestrial groups that make contact with global humanity. Consequently, ‘Earth citizens’ are likely to find themselves engaged in citizen diplomacy initiatives. This is due to their significance as representatives of the Earth and the aspirations of all terrestrial sentient species. They would receive special attention by extraterrestrials who view Earth citizens as spokespersons and de facto ambassadors for Earth.
There is very likely to be a great contrast between private citizens and appointed public officials in terms of galactic diplomacy and the recognition respectively given to the latter by extraterrestrial groups. ‘Track one’ galactic diplomacy involves public officials who are secretly appointed by the shadow government and/or national security entities to represent the national interests of their nations and deal with the extraterrestrial presence. Officials engaging in track one galactic diplomacy have all the resources and coercive potential of the modern nation state to support their activities, and collectively claim to be the official political representatives of global humanity and of the Earth’s territories. Yet, in the eyes of a number of extraterrestrial civilizations, these official diplomats enjoy less legitimacy than earth citizens. The latter presumably speak with greater authority due to their alignment with the Earth’s vital interests and willingness to represent the vital interests of other sentient intelligent species. In short, the question of who speaks with greater authority as a representative for the planet Earth and her varied species, is something that will directly impact on the choices made by extraterrestrial civilizations to communicate and interact with different parts of global humanity.
While some agreements have been reached between shadow government representatives and some extraterrestrial civilizations, other extraterrestrials have instead chosen to contact private individuals and/or citizen groups. In some cases, these private citizens are more in alignment with the Earth’s vital interests, and thus de facto spokespersons for the planet. This suggests future tension as more of humanity comes to develop sympathies and outlooks consistent with the global interests of the planet and all sentient species, and declaring themselves to be Earth Citizens or ‘Citizens of Gaia’. This is likely to herald tension between those portions of humanity respectively aligned either with their national political institutions, or aligned with a broader set of global interests that fall under the vital interest of the Earth. National laws such as the Logan Act may come into more prominence, and used against private citizens meeting with and/or reaching agreements with extraterrestrial civilizations. Nevertheless, citizen diplomacy with extraterrestrials is an idea whose time has come, and has the potential to transform a planetary reality based on national interests that ignore the planet as an organic unity.
About the Author: Michael E. Salla, PhD., is the
author of Exposing US Government Policies
on Extraterrestrial Life (2009) and Exopolitics:
Political Implications of the Extraterrestrial Presence (2004) His most
recent is Galactic Diplomacy: Getting to
Yes with ET (2013). He has held full time academic appointments at the Australian
National University, and American University, Washington DC. He has a PhD in Government
 I am indebted to Angelika Sareighn Whitecliff for her enthusiastic support, suggestions and assistance in the completion of this chapter. I also thank Hugh Matlock for identifying some typographical errors and expression of ideas concerning the ‘Voice of Gaia’. An earlier version of this chapter was originally published on GalacticDiplomacy.Com (Nov 4, 2004), and is available online at: http://web.archive.org/web/20120203205723/http://www.galacticdiplomacy.com/GD-Art-1.htm
 Said, A.S., Lerche, Jr., C.O. & Lerche III, C.O. Concepts of international politics in global perspective (Prentice Hall, 1995). 69
 Kissinger, Diplomacy (Simon and Schuster, 1995).
 See Anthony Levy, Cardinal Richelieu: And the Making of France (Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2000).
 See chapter five in Michael Salla, Galactic Diplomacy: Getting to Yes with ET (Exopolitics Institute, 2013)
 For discussion of how Presidents Carter and Clinton were kept out of the loop of information regarding the extraterrestrial presence, see Salla, Exopolitics: Political Implications of the Extraterrestrial Presence, 87-95.
 See Steven Greer, Hidden Truth, Forbidden Knowledge (Crossing Point Publications, 2006) 158. See also Richard Dolan, “The Admiral Wilson UFO Story,” available online at: http://www.ufodigest.com/news/0808/wilson.html
 Don Berliner, “UFO Briefing Document: International Agreements and Resolutions - United Nations,” available online at: http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc1037.htm
 For a detailed online study of Dolphin intelligence see: http://tinyurl.com/b2zsg79
 Michael Hyson, http://tinyurl.com/b2zsg79
 See John Lilly, Lilly on Dolphins: Humans of the Sea (Doubleday, 1975); Timothy Wyllie Dolphins Telepathy and Underwater Birthing (Bear and Company Publishing, 1993); and Joan Ocean, Dolphins Into the Future (A Dolphin Connection Book, 1997). For online information go to: www.joanocean.com
 Quoted in online article: http://paranormal.about.com/library/weekly/aa090400a.htm
 For detailed discussion of different categories of Reptilians interacting with humanity, see chapter five.
 See online article: http://paranormal.about.com/library/weekly/aa090400a.htm
 Lovelock, Gaia: a New Look at Life on Earth" ( Oxford University Press, 1979).
 Lovelock, Gaia: The Practical Science of Planetary Medicine, (Gaia Books Limited, 1991) 12.
 For online version of the U.S. Constitution, go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.overview.html
 For discussion of the evolution of decision making concerning extraterrestrial affairs, see Exopolitics: Political Implications of the Extraterrestrial Presence, ch. 2. Online version at: http://exopolitics.org/Study-Paper-5.htm
 Louise Diamond and John W. McDonald, "Multi-Track Diplomacy: A Systems Approach to Peace (Kumarian Press, 1996).
 William D. Davidson, Joseph V. Monteville, "Foreign Policy According to Freud." In Foreign Policy 45 (1981): 145-157.
 Joseph Montville, quoted in Diana Chigas, “Track Two (Citizen) Diplomacy,” available online at: http://www.beyondintractability.org/bi-essay/track2-diplomacy
 For online article on Track II diplomacy, see Susan Allen Nan and Andrea Strimling,
“Track I - Track II Cooperation,” http://www.beyondintractability.org/bi-essay/track-1-2-cooperation
“Integrating Track One and Track Two Approaches to International Conflict
Resolution: What's Working? What's Not? How Can We Do Better?”.
U.S. Department of State. , 2002-01-01.
Available at: http://2001-2009.state.gov/s/p/of/proc/tr/14387.htm.
 For discussion of Track Two Diplomacy and a variety of initiatives, see Diana Chigas, “Track Two (Citizen) Diplomacy,” available online at: http://www.beyondintractability.org/bi-essay/track2-diplomacy
 “Political Autonomy as a Conflict Resolution Mechanism for East Timor,” Unsolicited Grants, United States Institute for Peace, USIP-042-97F (1998) sum awarded: US$44,000; “Developing and Autonomy Framework for the East Timor Conflict,” Unsolicited Grants, United States Institute for Peace, USIP-068-96F (1997) sum awarded: US$29,000.
 A short paper was written about the significance of the first of the workshops organized by the author, see Michael Salla, “Rebuilding the ‘Negotiating Middle’ in Intractable Conflicts, Private Peacemaking: USIP-Assisted Peacemaking Projects of Nonprofit Organizations: Peaceworks No. 20 (US Institute of Peace, 1998) 1-5. Available online at: http://www.usip.org/publications/private-peacemaking .
 The website for the Institute of Multi-Track Diplomacy is http://www.imtd.org The website for Search for Common Ground is www.sfcg.org ; the website for the Institute of World Affairs is: http://www.iwa.org
 See Steven Greer, Disclosure: Military and Government Witnesses Reveal the Greatest Secrets in Modern History, 21-32
 Desmond Leslie and George Adamski, Flying Saucers have Landed (British Book Center, 1954).
 For discussion of experiences of an extensive number of contactees, see Timothy Good, Alien Base: The Evidence for Extraterrestrial Colonization on Earth (Harper Perennial, 1999).
 See Sixto Paz Wells, The Invitation; Gary Kinder, Light Years: An Investigation into the Extraterrestrial Experiences of Eduard Meier (Publisher Group West, 1987); Phillip Krapf, “The Challenge of Contact: a mainstream journalist’s report on interplanetary diplomacy,” (Origin Press, 2001). An online article on Carlos Diaz is available at: http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc1180.htm A book by Alex Collier, Defending Sacred Ground is available online at: http://www.alexcollier.org/alex-collier-defending-sacred-ground-1996/ . See also Enrique Castillo Rincon, UFOs: A Great New Dawn for Humanity (Blue Dolphin Publishing, 1997).
 This incident is described in Castillo, UFO: A Great New Dawn for Humanity, 110-20.
 Personal interview with Alex Collier (July, 2004).
 See “Unidentified Flying Objects and Air Force Project Blue Book,” http://www.cufon.org/cufon/malmstrom/UFO_A.html
 See Terry Hansen, The Missing Times (Xlibris Corporation, 2001).
 Majestic 12 Group, “Special Operations Manual, SOM1-01 - Extraterrestrial Entities and Technology, Recovery and Disposal,” April 1954 Part 2 http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sociopol_SOM1-01.htm
 “Testimony of Master Sergeant Dan Morris,” Disclosure: Military and Government Witnesses Reveal the Greatest Secrets in Modern History, ed., Steven Greer (Crossing Point Inc., 2001) 359.
 For discussion of the use of disinformation and other ‘soft censorship’ strategies used by military intelligence services, see John Maynard, “From Disinformation to Disclosure,” Surfing the Apocalypse, http://www.surfingtheapocalypse.com/maynard.html
 For detailed discussion of the motivations and agendas of different extraterrestrial races, see chapters three, four and five in Salla, Galactic Diplomacy: Getting to Yes with ET (Exopolitics Institute, 2013).
 Phillip H. Krapf, The Challenge of Contact (Origin Press, 2001) xix-xx.
 See Krapf, The Contact has Begun (Hay House Publishers, 1998) 118-20.
 Krapf, The Challenge of Contact (Origin Press, 2001) xvii.
 Krapf, The Challenge of Contact, xvii.
 For discussion of the message and its authenticity see Michael Salla, “A Message to Humanity: A Genuine Communication from an Extraterrestrial Race?” Exopolitical Comment #7 (11/08/03) available online at: http://exopolitics.org/ET-Intervention&Berlin-Wall.htm
 “We Are Ready to Change the World,” http://www.petitiononline.com/readynow/petition.html
 1 Stat. 613, January 30, 1799, codified at 18 U.S.C. § 953 (2004).